Stochastic prediction of the minimum night flow demand in a distric metered area
Advances in Water Supply Management
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One of the best well known and widest used method to evaluate water losses in a water distribution network is by means of the minimum night flow in a well defined District Metered Area (DMA). The measured flow is compared with the background minimum night flow, which is the sum of the customer night use and the background night flow losses. These components have to be assessed from "typical" values, so the error of the method depends to a large extent on the adequate estimation of these values. The authors have developed a stochastic model to simulate residential water demand, which can be used to evaluate residential night use. The model has been checked, providing reasonable results, with measurements performed in Spain and in the United States.