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This paper present a methodology to calculate the energy losses linked to leaks in water distribution systems and its equivalent in carbon credits (the amount of non emitted CO2 to the atmosphere obtained from saving water). To assess benefits of water losses reduction, two different scenarios (a network with and without leaks) are considered. Carbon credits calculations are performed using Pacific Institute Water to Air Models.
The method presented is based in the energetic audit of the network, performed from the energy equation applied to the distribution system. This energetic balance establishes that the input energy, coming from reservoirs and pumps, equals to useful energy delivered to the consumers plus losses lost in leaks and pipes friction. As a prerequisite, the energetic audit requires the water balance of the system and the mathematical model of the network. Simulations are carried out using EPAnet 2.0.
Finally, to show the influence of the energy and water sources in the final results, up to four different combinations of sources are considered. From this quantitative analysis, a sensibility analysis can be easily performed and from it, adequate strategies to manage the whole water cycle in a more sustainable way, clearly identified.